Author: Tania Komal
Piracy and trafficking both are crimes. In recent years it became major concern for many Indian Ocean rim countries. The Indian Ocean connects three continents, Africa, Oceania and Asia. It’s a vast area in economic and geographic size. Indian Ocean is basically among the busiest routes for global trade.
There are many new developments in the India Ocean that there are many new emerging threats in maritime such as, piracy, terrorism, trafficking and organized crime. Piracy is the rising security issue of the Indian Ocean. Somali coasts, Yemen coast, Srilanka, Sumatra coast, Bay of Bengal are the pirate prone areas of the Indian Ocean. Piracy and trafficking in Indian Ocean are criminal as well as security issue. Piracy has multiple and wide dimension. Sometimes, it is linked to broader politico military or economic situation in certain states.
Illegal trafficking is more of modern phenomenon. It involves human, arms, narcotics, logistic supplies. All these elements have security, strategic and political implications. Indian Ocean regions are infested with various types of military troubles. Middle East is the major example of clashes between sectarian armies and militants. An illegal arm trafficking on the other hand is a serious issue in Indian Ocean.
Failure of the colonialism is one of the major reasons of piracy in Indian Ocean. Portuguese and Dutch are mention able. Arab piracy was also recorded. In 18th century Maratha pirates dominated the Indian coastal waters. By the 19th century piracy in Indian Ocean suppressed by European colonial powers and their naval strength. Since late 19th century Indian Ocean enjoyed continues peace from pirates. Number of international coalitions has made to address the issue. UN established the contact groups in 2009 under Security Council Resolution 1851 off the coast of Somalia. It includes 66 states participants. Many states have unilateral of the multilateral worked on counter piracy efforts in this area. There seems to be cooperation among major powers e.g. U.S, China, India, Russia to carry out anti-piracy patrolling undertake rescue mission to suppressing Somali piracy. Puntlant maritime police force (PMPF) was created to combat piracy form land.
Some types of illegal trafficking that are:
• Human trafficking is an international crime. Bay of Bengal and adjacent rivers
is one common route of such crime. It’s a global phenomenon illiterate people
are use for labor by this act. UN has the protocol with respect to human
trafficking called “protocol to prevent”. Is have two principal purpose:
I. One is to facilitate international cooperation in investing the
II. Other is to protect human victims and help them.
Piracy and Trafficking 2021
Sexual exploitation is most common purpose of trafficking.
• Illegal arms trafficking especially small arms and explosive weapon are
frequent activity in Indian Ocean region. East Africa, Middle East, Pak-Afghan areas now under major arms smuggling activity.
• A massive amount of illegal narcotics trade and trafficking takes place in
Indian Ocean. The chief heroin trafficking corridor linking Afghanistan to
Russian Federation, Western Europe, Balkans and central Asian routes.
Afghanistan and the Myanmar-Lao are prime geographic sources of Opium.
Pakistan has the highest rates of illegal ownership of guns in the world. KPK alone is believed to have nearly half million illegitimate small arms and weapons. There is cross border flow of weapons by Afghan Mujahedeen. Free movement of Pashton tribesmen has harmed the caused. Majority of the political forces in Pakistan appear to be not tolerating the limitless acts of the armed radicals or illegal immigration of narcotics. Piracy creates insecurity in the Indian Ocean for traders. It makes trade routes more sensitive. Arms- trafficking, illicit trafficking of narcotics and human trafficking involves additional security resources. Indian Ocean regions are worst suffer from this. Trade and supply are delayed and hampered. Trafficking and piracy are indeed major issues in Indian Ocean. In some cases it has created some bilateral tensions as well among the countries of Indian Ocean rim. Regional politics and geo-strategic competition are also mired by these perilous phenomenons. Better training and capacity for the law enforcing agencies of the countries would help in preventing human trafficking. Effected wealthy nations may help developing such capacity to combat the illegal trafficking. Social campaigns involving the locals may help in its eradication.