Unemployment is a state of affairs in which people who are voluntarily looking for work are unable to find work. Unemployment is a global issue that affects both developed and developing countries simultaneously. It has become worse over time, particularly after the global economic downturn and it has become a challenge to economic growth, though global economics must be addressed. Increased population, swift technical transition, a lack of schooling or expertise, and increasing costs are only a few of the factors that lead to this global core concern.
Unemployment has a harmful impact on health in general, not just at the time of unemployment but also over a prolonged period of time This connection has previously been demonstrated for various aspects of self-assessed wellbeing, mental and physical safety, and depressive symptoms. Prior analysis has frequently prioritized assessing the extent of the impact at the population level, such as through meta-analyses.
According to some observational research, higher rates of depression and unemployment are not only linked but that higher rates of depression are caused by unemployment. Other experiments have revealed that inadequate psychological health is linked to unemployment. Demographic evidence indicates that as the population ages, individuals over the age of 45 would be more likely to work. Older adults are becoming highly critical labor force reservoirs. It is necessary to retain good health and lifestyle within this community and to offset the potentially detrimental consequences of long-term working life including cycles of unemployment and long-term unemployment, which is very hazardous to wellbeing.
The prevalence of unemployment stays a center of attention for many psychologists, economists, sociologists, and public health practitioners since this prevalence resulted in a variety of adverse consequences. Work is not only a means of financial revenue; it performs a number of other functions, such as the management and monitoring of social contacts and the organization of time. It improves certain abilities and gives certain privileges. Initially, loss of jobs eventually contributes to a deterioration of family finances and long-term unemployment – even poverty. Financial difficulties, distress, and total absence of social identity may lead to a variety of harmful social and health outcomes.
The phrase “quality of life” is highly complexed and relies on a number of factors, both personal and empirical. Quality of life represents the degree of happiness with fitness, material, and spiritual factors. QL is a life-long perspective of success and failure. It relies on a person’s preferred life aspirations and the meaning of their accomplishment. Unemployment is one of the most devastating human experiences in the working-age population A number of past surveys have demonstrated the debilitating impact of unemployment on human well-being, both financial and non-financial. It is studied that unemployment significantly decreases the level of satisfaction of the person with his or her key professional practice and income, whereas it dramatically increases his or her level of satisfaction with leisure activities. It has a marginal detrimental impact on fitness. The length of unemployment often has a slight adverse influence on individual health, meaning that unemployment has a long-lasting and worsening effect over the period of unemployment, which contradicts the principle of evolution.
As for Pakistan, its unemployment rate dropped below the one percent rate in 2010, it is now on the increase again and is predicted to be just over four percent. Generally, however, most Pakistanis work in agriculture, with the largest share of the country’s GDP being provided by services such as tourism, banking, and IT. Though agriculture remains essential to Pakistan’s development, the services sector is gaining strength and more citizens are relocating from the countryside to urban areas in search of work.
Based on the Government’s annual 2020-21 project, Pakistan has the 9th largest workforce on the planet, which is growing each year. From 62.18 million in 2019-20, the number of working jobs will rise to 62.91 million in 2020-21. The unemployment level for the next year (2020-21) has been predicted at 9.56 percent, according to the Labour Force Survey 2017-18.
Pakistan is suffering from the phenomena of unemployed qualified people especially unemployed graduates. The unemployment rate for Grade-holders is apparently three times higher than the rest of the total unemployed. The explanation given for this is the imbalance between education and the need for the economy to accommodate new graduates adequately. Pakistan is the sixth most populated country in the world with a population of 219 million. With the present population growth rate, it is expected to hit 280 million by 2030. At large, 63 pc of the population are under the age of 30. It makes strategic sense to help young individuals learn the best skills for jobs. An astounding number of young people were not present in school, jobs, or training.
Pakistan’s economy was severely affected by the onset of the Covid-19 catastrophe. These negative economic effects of the pandemic have resulted across numerous means, including a reduction in domestic consumption, a fall in market practices, a decline in imports and exports, and a fall in productivity due to interruption of the distribution system. One of the rather clear consequences is a reduction in jobs, especially among people in the underprivileged employment category. The directions of resources have suffered. The pandemic has spread exponentially from the healthcare problem to the economic and employment sector crises. The annual strategy, according to government statements emphasizes developing incentives for productive employment within the wider scope of the government’s economic development and transition programs and proposes Covid-19’s sensitive policies to secure employees and their work.
Boundless. “Boundless Economics.” Lumen. Accessed March 06, 2021. https://courses.lumenlearning.com/boundless-economics/chapter/introduction-to-unemployment/.
“The Effects and Causes of Unemployment.” UKEssays.com. Accessed March 06, 2021. https://www.ukessays.com/essays/economics/the-effects-and-causes-of-unemployment-economics-essay.php#citethis.
- McKee-Ryan, ZL. Song, P. Virtanen F. Norström, K. Moser KI. Paul, A. Hammarström A. Brydsten, M. Daly V. Mousteri, U. Janlert F. Norström, M. Evensen A. Reneflot, A. Winefield M. Strandh, D. Malmusi V. Puig-Barrachina, R. Westerling A. Åhs, R. Brooks, P. Dolan, MJ. Sculpher MF. Drummond, M. Jahoda, M. Davidian JK. Lunceford, DB. Rubin PR. Rosenbaum, H. Jia K. Schroeder, R. Wyss MA. Brookhart, EA. Stuart PC. Austin, H. White SC. Bagley, DV. Hinckley AC. Davison, T. Hemmingsson MC. Backhans, M. Lindström, PE. Gustafsson A. Hammarström, M. Novo I. Reine, E. Lahelma E. Roos, S. Sun K. Burström, and O. Dem Knesebeck TJ. Kim. “Does Unemployment Contribute to Poorer Health-related Quality of Life among Swedish Adults?” BMC Public Health. January 01, 1970. Accessed March 06, 2021. https://bmcpublichealth.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/s12889-019-6825-y.
Pharr, Jennifer R., Sheniz Moonie, and Timothy J. Bungum. “The Impact of Unemployment on Mental and Physical Health, Access to Health Care and Health Risk Behaviors.” ISRN Public Health. December 25, 2011. Accessed March 06, 2021. https://www.hindawi.com/journals/isrn/2012/483432/.
Worach-Kardas, Halina, and Szymon Kostrzewski. “Quality of Life and Health State of Long – Term Unemployed in Older Production Age.” Applied Research in Quality of Life. 2014. Accessed March 06, 2021. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4000620/.
Plecher, Published By H., and Oct 28. “Pakistan – Unemployment Rate 2020.” Statista. October 28, 2020. Accessed March 06, 2021. https://www.statista.com/statistics/383735/unemployment-rate-in-pakistan/#:~:text=In 2019, the unemployment rate,4.08 percent the previous year.&text=The unemployment rate of a,and/or willing to work.
Mian, Bakhtawar. “Number of Jobless People to Reach 6.65m in 2020-21.” DAWN.COM. June 17, 2020. Accessed March 06, 2021. https://www.dawn.com/news/1564053.
Chaudhry, Saima. “Unemployment In Pakistan: Reasons Behind This Persistent Issue.” Dunya Blog. July 07, 2019. Accessed March 06, 2021. http://blogs.dunyanews.tv/24993/.